Interesting heart - related facts
6 Interesting Facts Of The Human Heart
Knowing Your Heart
The human heart is a muscular organ, and it is the strongest muscle in our body. Our heart is located in the centre of our chest, slightly underneath and to the left of our breastbone (sternum) in the thoracic area. It is protected by the ribcage.
As the main organ in the cardiovascular system and central part of the circulatory system, our heart is an important organ. When our heart beats, it pumps oxygenated blood throughout our body via blood vessels or the circulatory system. In this way, oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other vital substances are transported to every part of our body while carbon dioxide and other metabolic wastes are removed from the blood.
Click on the "+" symbol to learn more about the different parts of the human heart.
What anatomical components make up the human heart?
The position of the heart is in the central region of the chest, slightly to the left and beneath the sternum (breastbone) in the thoracic region, where the ribcage protects it.
The muscular wall of the heart comprises 3 layers:
- Epicardium - the outermost layer, which also comprises the pericardium, the protective sac.
- Myocardium - the thick middle layer, which is made up of cardiac muscle fibres.
- Endocardium - the innermost layer.
The heart consists of 4 chambers:
- 2 upper chambers (atria) - left atrium and right atrium
- 2 lower chambers (ventricles) - left ventricle and right ventricle
There are 4 valves in the heart:
- Atrioventricular (AV) valves:
- The tricuspid valve enables the flow of blood from the right atrium to the right ventricle.
- The mitral valve enables the flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
- Semilunar (SL) valves:
- The aortic valve enables the flow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle to the aorta (largest artery) to be pumped to the entire body.
- The pulmonary valve enables the flow of deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries for them to be transported to the lungs to be replenished with oxygen.
- Atrioventricular (AV) valves:
Blood is transported by the heart via 2 types of blood vessels:
- Veins - these blood vessels transport deoxygenated blood to the heart.
- Arteries - these blood vessels transport oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The aorta is the largest artery in the body. This blood vessel, which is present in the left ventricle is the main artery that transports oxygenated blood to the other parts of the body.
The cardiac muscles also have coronary arteries that are present inside and around them called the right coronary artery (RCA) and left main coronary artery (LMCA). The cardiac muscles receive nutrient- and oxygen-rich blood from these arteries.
What conditions and diseases affect the cardiovascular system?
The Department of Statistics Malaysia (DOSM) reported the leading cause of death in Malaysia as being ischaemic heart disease, which accounted for 17% out of 109,155 deaths that were medically certified in 2020. Ischaemic heart disease occurs due to the narrowing of arteries (coronary artery disease).
This figure from the DOSM emphasises the significance of good heart health in Malaysia. The highly skilled and diverse team of specialists at Gleneagles Hospitals is equipped with advanced technology to help diagnose, treat, and manage cardiac diseases.
Cardiovascular disease or heart disease includes a variety of conditions, such as heart rhythm issues, blood vessel disease, coronary artery disease and heart defects. These diseases typically involve narrow or obstructed blood vessels. However, they may also impair the muscles, valves or rhythm of the heart.
Here are the top 10 cardiovascular conditions and diseases in Malaysia:
What is the prevalence of heart disease in Malaysia?
Ischaemic heart disease, also known as heart disease, which is caused by the narrowing of arteries (coronary artery disease) is the leading cause of death in Malaysia. The disease accounted for 11.6% of all medically certified deaths in 2000 and has since increased to 17.0% of all medically certified deaths in 2020.2
Are coronary heart disease and ischemic heart disease the same?
Yes, coronary heart disease (CHD) is also referred to as ischaemic heart disease or coronary artery disease (CAD). It is the most prevalent heart disease. It arises when the major blood vessels of the body get diseased or damaged and are therefore unable to pump blood, along with its oxygen nutrients from the heart to the other parts of the body.3
What is myocardial infarction?
Myocardial infarction is an alternate term for a heart attack. Myocardial infarction results from the insufficient supply of oxygenated blood to one or multiple parts of the cardiac muscle, which occurs due to an obstruction in the blood flow to the cardiac muscle.
A heart attack requires urgent medical attention and treatment as it could be fatal. Regardless, a heart attack is capable of causing lasting heart damage.4
How is a heart attack different from a sudden cardiac arrest?
The two are connected. However, they are not the same.
- A heart attack results from a clogged artery, which prevents a part of the heart from receiving oxygenated blood. The symptoms that develop from a heart attack may be immediate and severe. However, symptoms usually develop gradually and may be experienced hours, days or weeks before the heart attack. Unlike sudden cardiac arrests, heart attacks typically do not cause the heart to stop beating.
- In contrast, a cardiac arrest occurs suddenly and usually without warning. It is brought about by an electrical disturbance in the heart which results in irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia). Due to the heart not being able to pump blood effectively, it would not be able to drive the blood to other organs such as the lungs and brains. A patient experiencing a sudden cardiac arrest will die in a matter of minutes if not treated.
Learn more about the warning signs of a heart attack and cardiac arrest here.5
How is a heart failure different from a heart attack?
- Heart failure is a condition, which develops slowly. It arises when the heart gets too stiff or weak and as a result, it cannot pump blood as efficiently as it normally would. This leads to the blood backing up and the accumulation of fluids in the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath.
- A heart attack occurs due to a blockage in an artery that leads to the heart. This would prevent an area of the heart from receiving oxygenated blood, which results in the death of cardiac muscles.
Is angina similar to a heart attack?
Angina is characterised by pain, pressure, pain, or a feeling of tightness in the chest. The pain may sometimes spread to the arm, back or neck and could be confused for indigestion. The symptoms closely resemble those of a heart attack.
Angina can be divided into two types:
- Stable angina regularly happens during physical activities or times of mental or emotional stress. With rest or medication, it fades away.
- Unstable angina is a medical emergency that can happen even when resting.
What does a heart murmur mean? Is it harmful?
When blood flows through the chambers and valves of a heart during a heartbeat, a heart murmur may be heard as a blowing or whooshing sound. It can be categorised as systolic (when the heart is pumping blood out) or diastolic (when blood fills up the heart).
Your doctor will rate the murmur on a scale of 1 to 6 based on how loud it is when heard using a stethoscope.
A heart murmur is either innocent (normal) or non-innocent (abnormal). Defective heart valves or specific congenital heart abnormalities frequently result in abnormal heart murmurs.
Before reaching a diagnosis, your doctor could suggest additional diagnostic procedures like an echocardiogram (echo) or electrocardiogram (ECG).8
What is a normal heart rate?
A healthy adult's normal resting heart rate ranges between 60 and 100 beats per minute (bpm). Adults with excellent cardiovascular health, such as well-trained athletes, would have normal resting heart rates close to 40 bpm.
These are the typical heart rates based on age:
- Children aged 6 to 15 years: 70 to 100 bpm
- Adults aged 18 years and older: 60 to 100 bpm
Checking your pulse will allow you to determine your heart rate. Try placing your index and middle fingers on the side of the windpipe on your neck.
Alternatively, you can place two fingers on the tendon and bone covering the radial artery, which is situated on the thumb side of the wrist.
Record the number of beats in 15 seconds as soon as you feel a pulse and multiply it by four to determine your beats per minute.9
What are heart palpitations and should I be concerned about them?
Heart palpitations are characterised by sensations that cause you to notice that your heart is beating fast, pounding in your chest and heart rates with irregular rhythms.
Common triggers of heart palpitations include:
- Anxiety, stress, fear or panic
- Consumption of caffeine or alcohol
- Low blood sugar levels
- Nicotine withdrawal after stopping smoking
- Changes in hormones during pregnancy.
Heart palpitations are generally short-lived and are usually harmless if the triggers are recognised.
However, you should consult a doctor if you have heart palpitations that are frequent or if they are accompanied by fainting, lightheadedness, disorientation, dizziness, or chest aches or pressure.
Heart palpitation symptoms can occasionally be linked to an abnormal heart rhythm. For more information on abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) click here
What are the common heart disease symptoms?
Common heart attack symptoms include:
- Feeling of pain, pressure, heaviness or tightness in the chest
- Pain in the jaw, throat, neck, back or shoulders
- Feeling of coldness in the arms and legs (caused by constricted blood vessels)
- Heart palpitations
- Shortness of breath
- Exhaustion or dizziness
- Fainting (syncope)
- Abnormal heart rate (tachycardia or bradycardia)
- Bluish-purple discolouration of the skin (cyanosis)
- Swelling of the ankles, feet, legs or hands
Make an appointment with your doctor if you experience any of the symptoms above, irrespective of their severity. Your doctor will keep track of your symptoms and provide advice on the best course of action.
Please see the graphic above for details on the specific symptoms associated with each cardiovascular or heart disease.2
What are some complications that may develop from heart disease?
It is recommended for you or a loved one to see a doctor if any heart disease symptoms are experienced. If not treated, heart disease may cause:
- Heart failure
- Recurring heart attack
- Peripheral artery disease
- Sudden cardiac arrest
What risk factors are associated with heart diseases?
Risk factors of heart diseases include:
- Older age
- Family history of heart disease
- Diabetes / Hypertension
- High cholesterol
- Lack of physical activity
- Poor diet
- Overconsumption of alcohol or caffeine
Heart disease can usually be avoided by adopting a healthy lifestyle. However, certain conditions like congenital heart defects, are present from birth.4
How does heart disease affect women?
Heart disease is the main cause of death for women above the age of 40. When a woman reaches menopause (permanent cessation of menses), which occurs at age 50 and above, her risk of heart disease rises considerably. Younger women who have experienced early or surgical menopause are also at increased risk, particularly when these variables are paired with other unhealthy lifestyle practices and risk factors, which include:
- High blood pressure
- High blood cholesterol (specifically high LDL, or "bad" cholesterol)
- Physical inactivity
- Family history of heart disease
- Pregnancy-related issues, such as preeclampsia, hypertension, gestational diabetes, or increased sugar levels
- Inflammatory and rheumatic illnesses
How is a heart disease diagnosis made? What medical exams are typically used to identify heart conditions?
Your medical history both personal and familial will be discussed with you by your doctor as they examine you. Your doctor will decide which tests are necessary to diagnose your heart condition based on their professional judgement.
To ascertain the heart condition and the most effective treatment options, your doctor may carry out a number of medical tests. The tests may include:
- Blood tests: Blood tests are used to measure the levels of several components in the blood, including triglycerides, vitamins, and minerals as well as cholesterol.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG is used to provide a measurement of the electrical impulses in the heart. It helps to indicate how well the heart is beating.
- Cardiac stress test: A stress test, which might also be referred to as an “exercise” or “treadmill”, involves the use of ECG while performing an exercise. It helps doctors determine the functionality of the heart during physical activity.
- Echocardiogram (echo): An echocardiogram produces an image of the heart using ultrasound, a type of X-ray. It enables doctors to check the condition of the chambers and valves of the heart as well as the efficiency of the heart in pumping blood.
- Coronary angiogram: A doctor may perform a coronary angiogram if a patient has had a heart attack or angina. It assists doctors in identifying the amount as well as the location of obstructed coronary arteries.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): An MRI produces detailed, computerised images of the heart through the use of powerful magnets and radio waves. This test shows the anatomy and functionality of the heart, enabling doctors to choose the best course of action.
For more information on Cardiovascular Assessments and Diagnostic Tools click here.2
What do I have to do if I have been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease?
You will begin visiting your cardiologist more frequently once you have been diagnosed. Additionally, you would also be required to make some long-term lifestyle adjustments. You can reduce your risk of developing more severe heart issues in the future by changing your diet and exercising frequently.
When do I need to visit a cardiologist? What signs and symptoms I should watch out for?
The first step to take if you are worried about your cardiovascular health is to talk to your general practitioner, who will refer you to a cardiologist if required. You may be referred to a cardiologist if you experience symptoms such as:
- Chest pain
- Shortness of breath
- Lightheadedness or fainting
- An abnormally slow or fast heart rate
- High blood pressure
- Swelling of the legs
- Leg ulcers or aches due to blood vessel conditions
How can I choose the best cardiologist for me?
One of the most important aspects of the relationship between a healthcare professional and a patient is communication. You should be comfortable with your doctor. You should also check for the qualifications and credentials of the doctor.
Ideally, a general practitioner who is aware of your medical history, as well as any concerns you may have, should refer you to a cardiologist.
The following are some potential reasons you might wish to consult a different doctor or get a second opinion:
- Your communication preferences are different from your doctor's.
- You find it hard to connect with your doctor.
- You are unsure of the expense or safety of the doctor's recommended treatment.
However, you should keep in mind that even knowledgeable medical professionals might not always offer the same recommendations. Hence, it may be beneficial to gather different opinions.3
What happens once someone experiences a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA)?
You will probably have to be admitted to a hospital for additional care and treatment, under the watchful eyes of the medical staff after surviving a sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Medications may be used to help in preventing another SCA from occurring.
The medical staff will work to identify the root of your SCA. You may require angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery following a diagnosis of coronary artery disease.
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is usually planted under the skin of the chest or abdomen of patients who suffered an SCA. ICDs use electric pulses to help regulate irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias) that may be harmful.4
What happens following an open-heart surgery?
Depending on the surgery, you may be required to stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) for a day or longer. Once you are ready, you will be moved into a regular hospital room.
You can expect to spend a number of days in the hospital. You will be shown how to take care of your incision by your heart care team.5
How long will my recovery from open-heart surgery take?
Your recovery time will vary depending on the procedure, possible problems, and your general health before the surgery. Recovery from an open-heart surgery may take 6 to 12 weeks (or even longer in some circumstances).6
What does cardiac rehabilitation involve?
Cardiac rehabilitation is a medically supervised programme and is intended to help patients recover from heart attacks, heart failures, or heart operations. There are three crucial components of cardiac rehabilitation:
- Exercise training and counselling: The cardiovascular and cardiac systems are strengthened by exercise. Patients will be taught how to move in ways that are beneficial for their hearts.
- Education to encourage healthy living to promote heart health: This involves the practice of a healthy diet, quitting smoking, and taking medicine as directed.
- Counselling: Stress can be harmful to the heart. Through counselling, patients can identify and address the sources of stress.
When should someone be screened for cardiovascular risk factors?
Screening for cardiovascular risk factors is advised for adults aged 18 and above. Regular screenings (as advised by a doctor) are recommended for people with conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure and chronic kidney disease as they are more at risk of cardiovascular disease.2
How can I lower my risk of acquiring heart disease?
You can take a number of steps to reduce your chances of developing heart disease and effectively manage the symptoms and advancement of several cardiovascular diseases. These include making significant adjustments to your lifestyle, such as:
- Keeping a healthy weight
- Practising a healthy and balanced diet
- Exercising or partaking in physical activities on a regular basis
- Stopping or avoiding smoking
- Getting a good amount of sleep
- Controlling your consumption of alcohol
- Managing other health conditions (e.g., high cholesterol, hypertension and diabetes)
- Reducing and controlling your stress levels
What dietary changes should I make in order to reduce my risk of developing heart disease?
Practising a healthy diet helps lower the likelihood of developing heart disease.
Here are some dietary changes you may adopt to reduce your chance of developing heart disease:
- Reduce your intake of processed meat and refined carbohydrates
- Increase your intake of fruits and vegetables
- Increase your intake of foods that are rich in fibre and low in saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol
- Limit your intake of salt and sugar
How is the risk of developing a heart disease affected by a lack of exercise?
Heart disease has been shown to be directly associated with a lack of regular exercise or physical activity. Exercise reduces the risk of heart disease through:
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- Reducing the blood pressure
- Increasing blood flow and preventing the formation of clots
- Promoting good cholesterol
- Possibly lowering the bad cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are 2 key factors that contribute to heart disease
- Reducing or preventing the progression of diabetes
- Reducing or preventing the progression of diabetes
The American Heart Association recommends that adults engage in at least two and a half hours of moderate exercise each week. You can also lower your stress levels and improve your mood by looking after your heart. It is time to start exercising to promote your heart health!5
How does smoking trigger heart disease?
The coronary arteries deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart. The risk of developing a heart attack increases when fatty deposits (plaque) accumulate inside these arteries, which may obstruct blood flow to the heart.
The narrowing and obstruction of the coronary arteries are accelerated by smoking. This is as the substances in cigarette smoke, such as nicotine and carbon monoxide, cause the cells that line the blood vessels to enlarge and inflame. The cardiac muscles would begin to die if they are deprived of oxygen and nutrients.6
How can I effectively care for a person who has heart failure?
The role of a caregiver of a heart failure patient comprises a variety of tasks and responsibilities, which vary based on the symptoms and comorbidities of the patient, the relationship between the caregiver and patient and the complexity of the treatment plan.
While a huge part of the caregiver's job is to help the patient perform daily tasks and adhere to their treatment plan, it is also vital for the caregiver to offer psychosocial support.
Myth 1: “Heart disease runs in my family, so there isn't much I can do to prevent it.”
Fact: You can considerably reduce your heart disease risk, even if you have a family history by taking certain measures. Maintaining an active, healthy lifestyle can help keep your heart healthy.2
Myth 2: “I won't develop any heart diseases as I'm still young. I should only get my health screened when I'm older.”
Fact: People of all ages can develop heart disease and it is becoming more prevalent among young adults. This is in part because the factors that contribute to heart diseases may arise while people are younger.
The risk of developing cardiovascular disease when you are older is significantly influenced by your current lifestyle. The formation of plaques in the arteries can start as early as childhood and could ultimately result in blocked arteries.
Therefore, it is wise to undergo routine health screenings to take control of your cardiovascular health.3
Myth 3: “My heart will not be affected by diabetes as long as I take my medication.”
Fact: While, the treatment of diabetes can delay or prevent the development of cardiovascular disease, you still face the risk of developing heart disease and stroke even if you have well-controlled blood sugar levels.
The risk of getting cardiovascular disease is increased by the same risk factors that lead to diabetes. These include smoking, obesity, hypertension and physical inactivity.4
Myth 4: “A heart failure means the heart has stopped beating.”
Fact: A cardiac arrest may cause the heart to stop beating. This is not, however, considered to be heart failure. Heart failure refers to a condition where the heart is unable to pump blood to other body parts efficiently. This commonly happens when the heart becomes too weak or stiff. Heart failure, therefore, does not indicate that the heart has stopped beating.5
Myth 5: “All cholesterol is bad cholesterol.”
Fact: Specific types of cholesterol are necessary for the health of the body. The body needs cholesterol for vital processes like cell generation and hormone production. Lipoproteins transport cholesterol through the blood.
There are two forms of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol:
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, makes up the bulk of the cholesterol in your body. Heart disease and stroke risk are increased by high levels of LDL cholesterol.
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL): The "good" cholesterol, HDL carries cholesterol back to the liver to be removed from the body. High HDL cholesterol levels can lower the risk for stroke and heart disease.
If there is an excess of LDL cholesterol in the body, it can build up in the walls of the blood vessels. This buildup, which is also termed a plaque, may cause the narrowing of the blood vessels. If the blood supply to the heart is impeded, blood circulation between the heart and other organs might then be reduced, which could result in a heart attack or angina.6
Myth 6: “I don't exhibit any symptoms of high blood pressure or high cholesterol warning signals, so I must be healthy.”
Fact: High blood pressure or hypertension has often been given the nickname "silent killer" because it may not present any symptoms, leading you to believe you don't have it. Therefore, it is always advisable to get routine medical check-ups as a precaution.
If there is a history of heart disease in your family, you should start getting regular cholesterol levels screened earlier. Children from families with a history of high cholesterol may have elevated cholesterol levels, which increases their heart disease risk as adults.
According to the Ministry of Health's 2019 National Health and Morbidity Survey, 8 million or 40% of Malaysian adults have high cholesterol, which is a significant risk factor for heart diseases.7
Myth 7: “I can tell when I am experiencing a heart attack as my chest will hurt.”
Fact: While it is typical to have chest pain or discomfort, a heart attack can also result in more subtle symptoms such as nausea, shortness of breath, dizziness and discomfort or pain in the jaw, neck, back, or arms.8
8. Myth 8: “After recovering from a heart attack I should refrain from being active and exercising after recovering from a heart attack.”
Fact: According to studies, heart attack patients who routinely participate in physical activities and make other lifestyle changes to support heart health live longer than patients who do not. Moderately intense exercises are generally safe and good for the long-term health of individuals with chronic diseases.9
Myth 9: “The numbness and pain I feel in my leg is not connected to my heart.”
Fact: Muscle pain in the legs may indicate peripheral vascular disease (PVD), which is caused by an accumulation of plaque in arteries (atherosclerosis). People who suffer from this condition are more likely to experience a heart attack or stroke.10
Myth 10: “My heartbeat is faster than usual. I must be having a heart attack.”
Fact: It is normal for your heart rate to fluctuate slightly. Your heart rate increases during physical activity or when you are excited, whereas it decreases during sleep. A shift in your heartbeat is typically nothing to be concerned about. However, it could indicate an abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia). Although most arrhythmias are harmless, some can persist for a substantial amount of time and may affect the functionality of the heart. Such arrhythmias would necessitate treatment.
What is atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is a disease that develops from the accumulation of a sticky substance called plaque in the arteries. The development of atherosclerosis occurs gradually as a plaque forms through the accumulation of substances like blood cells as well as fat and cholesterol deposits.
As a plaque builds up over time, the blood vessels would start to narrow. As a result, less oxygenated blood reaches the vital organs.2
Is the brain and heart health connected?
Brain and heart health are closely related. This is as the heart drives blood to every organ in the body, including the brain.
As blood is transported to the brain through blood vessels, any damage to them could result in serious health issues. These health issues are referred to as cerebrovascular diseases, which are diseases that affect the blood vessels that deliver blood to the brain.
Cerebrovascular diseases arise due to a reduction in blood flow to the brain as a result of artery constriction (atherosclerosis), blood clot formation (thrombosis), blockage (embolism), or blood vessel rupture (haemorrhage). The most prevalent cerebrovascular disease is stroke.3
Is a stroke identical to an aneurysm?
A stroke happens when a clot or a plaque obstructs ta blood vessel in the brain or if the blood vessel bursts. This results in the death of brain tissue, which impairs memory.
A transient ischaemic attack (TIA), commonly referred to as a "ministroke," happens when the supply of blood to the brain is temporarily cut off or interrupted because of a blood vessel blockage, depriving the brain of oxygen. A type of dementia known as vascular dementia may arise after a series of small, "silent" strokes or "ministrokes", which includes symptoms such as delayed thinking, memory loss, and personality changes.
An aneurysm is a medical term used to describe the weakening of an arterial wall that causes the artery to enlarge and potentially cause it to rupture.
Preserving the health of the blood vessels aids in keeping the heart and brain healthy.
For more information on the warning signs of a stroke click here.4
What are aortic diseases?
The biggest artery in the human body, the aorta, is the primary artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
Aortic diseases include:
- Aortic aneurysms, which occur when the aorta swells or bulges as a result of damage or weakening of the aortic wall. The aorta may tear as a result, or it may even burst or rupture (aortic rupture).
- Aortic dissections, , which refer to tears in the aorta which result from aortic aneurysms. An aortic dissection is considered a medical emergency.
What do pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and venous thromboembolism (VTE) mean? What connection do they have to cardiovascular disease?
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a term used to describe a blood clot that begins in the vein. VTE comprises two conditions:
- Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot develops in a deep vein, typically one that runs through the leg, thigh, pelvis, or arm, though it can also occur in other veins.
- A pulmonary embolism (PE) ensues when a DVT clot escapes from the vein wall enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart and lungs.
Specific surgical procedures (e.g., coronary artery bypass surgery) and conditions (e.g., heart attack and heart failure) increase the risk of developing VTE.
- Department of Statistics Malaysia. Statistics on Causes of Death, Malaysia, 2021. Available at https://www.dosm.gov.my/v1/index.php?r=column/cthemeByCat&cat=401&bul_id=R3VrRUhwSXZDN2k4SGN6akRhTStwQT09&menu_id=L0pheU43NWJwRWVSZklWdzQ4TlhUUT09 [Accessed on 8 June 2022]
- World Health Organisation. WHO reveals leading causes of death and disability worldwide: 2000-2019. Available at https://www.who.int/news/item/09-12-2020-who-reveals-leading-causes-of-death-and-disability-worldwide-2000-2019 [Accessed on 8 June 2022]
Visit your nearby Gleneagles Hospital to learn more about our cardiology services.
A dedicated and expert team of cardiologists at Gleneagles Hospitals is available for consultation to provide the best care and assistance to patients through heart health screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Get in touch with us to book an appointment with a cardiologist today.