Prostate cancer is the third most common cancer in males in Malaysia. Early prostate cancers are usually asymptomatic. Therefore, prostate cancer is known as a silent killer.
Prostate cancer is more likely to affect elder men who are above 60 years old. Hence, all men aged 50 and above are encouraged to go for prostate cancer screening by a urologist. However, it can also occur in younger males. People who have been diagnosed with prostate cancer at a younger age usually have a more aggressive disease.
What Are the Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer?
- Old age
- Family history of prostate cancer
What Are the Symptoms of Prostate Cancer?
Men with early prostate cancer usually do not experience any symptoms. Those in more advanced stages of prostate cancer may experience symptoms such as:
- Difficulty in passing urine
- Urinary hesitancy
- Frequent urination
- Blood in the urine
- Bone pain
What Are the Stages of Prostate Cancer?
- Localised prostate cancer
- Locally advanced prostate cancer – the cancer has spread into the area just outside the prostate
- Metastatic prostate cancer – the cancer has spread out of the prostate capsule into the surrounding tissue, usually the bones
How Is Prostate Cancer Diagnosed?
- Digital rectal exam to detect lumps in the prostate
- Blood test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
- Biopsy of the prostate
- MRI scan of the prostate
What Are the Treatment Options for Prostate Cancer?
Patients diagnosed with prostate cancer may be treated with:
- Radical prostatectomy is done to remove the prostate either robotically, laparoscopically or using the conventional open surgery method
- Hormonal therapy