Thyroid Disorder

In order for your body to function normally, the thyroid gland secretes two types of hormones which are thyroxine and triiodothyronine. This thyroid gland that is in the front of the neck works to ensure the metabolic processes are working well together. Hyperthyroidism can be caused when this gland does not function properly and becomes overactive. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland is underactive. Women are more susceptible to thyroid disorders than men. 

Causes
There are many factors affecting hyperthyroidism including a common cause which is Grave's disease. For those with Grave's disease, the immune system in the body secretes thyroxine uncontrollably stimulated by the antibodies being produced. Grave's disease leads to eye irritation and swelling, and vision impairment. Genetics might play a part in being a causing factor to Grave's disease. Hyperactive thyroid nodules produce excessive thyroxine hormones that leads to an overactive thyroid. Thyroiditis can also lead to hyperthyroidism.  
Symptoms

The symptoms for hyperthyroidism might include: 
- Anxiety, nervousness, and irritability 
- Bulging eyes
- Changes in menstruation 
- Diarrhoea
- Fast heart rate and palpitations
- Fatigue and lethargy
- Muscle weakness and trembling 
- Sensitivty to heat 
- Sleeping difficulties
- Weight loss 

The symptoms for hypothyroidism might include:
- Changes in menstruation 
- Constipation
- Depression
- Fatigue and sluggishness
- Fragile fingernails and hair 
- Pale skin and puffy face 
- Sensitivity to cold
- Slow heart rate 
- Weight gain

Treatments

Factors such as age,physical condition, cause, and severity, all affects the treatment for hyperthyroidism. Options for treatment includes: 

Anti-Thyroid Medicine is recommended as the best treatment option as it blocks the secretion of thyroid hormones. This reduces symptoms shows for hyperthyroidism.

Hormone Replacement Therapy aims to control the levels of thyroid hormones by utilizing a syntetic thyroid hormone pill.

Radioactive Iodine Treatment - will be used if you are unresponsive to the anti-thyroid medications. 

Radioactive Iodine is administered orally and can reduce the thyroid activity immensely and even permanently. 

Surgical Removal - this treatment is reommended when alternative treatments show ineffective. You might need to take life-long medication to maintain normal thyroid hormone levels. 

Complications and related diseases

Problems associated with the eyes include bulging eyes and blurry vision (caused by Grave's disease).

Fever and hallucinations.

Irregular heart rhythm and heart failure.

Osteoporosis (bone condition characterised by weak and brittle bones)

Our Specialists

Dr. Sreetharan Sivapatha Sundaram
Specialty
Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery (ENT)
Head & Neck Surgery
Location
Gleneagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu
Dr. G. T. Rajendran
Specialty
Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery (ENT)
Location
Gleneagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu
Dr. Lum Chee Lun
Specialty
Ear, Nose and Throat Surgery (ENT)
Location
Gleneagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu

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