Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis refers to the bones losing their mass and strength causing them to be brittle. The bones are losing its minerals such as calcium at a rapid state. This is more common at the hips, spine, and wrist.

At a younger age, bones are able to replace themselves when they are broken down. On average, bones stop growing at 30 years of age, and it degenrates faster as compared to the time it can be replaced.



Causes

There are many risk factors involve that can lead to Osteoporosis: These include:

- Non modifiable risks such as:

- a solid family history of relative suffering from the disease

- Women are more susceptible to developing Osteoporosis, more so during menopause. This happens when the body produces less oestrogen levels. If a women gets a hysterectomy (womb surgical removal), the individual is at a higher risk, before the age of 45.

Ethnicity; Caucasiand and Asians are more susceptible in developing Osteoporosis.

- Modifiable risk factors that include:

- An unhealthy diet that lack nutritions and vitamins, for example, vitamin D and calcium.

- Previous bone injuries, long term mobility impairment, medications and illnesses (such as the kidney, liver, and thyroid diseases), that can increase the risk

Symptoms

This is also commonly known as the 'silent disease' where there is no visible signs or symptoms. Essentially, symptoms can appear if the condition gets to a mature stage:

- Back pain

- Gradual height loss

- Hip, spine and wrist fractures


Treatment

Treatment is generally for adding more bone mass simultaneously reducing the risk of a fracture. Often, these treatments have a good success rate. Certain treatments might include:

- Bisphosphonates is a type of treatment that is used to increase your bone density and to regain strength again by fixing bones that are weak. This is beneficial for women who are going through postmenopausal phase.

- Calcium and vitamin D supplements that are paired with targeted osteoporosis medication to make sure the bones get sufficient amount of calcium and vitamin D to enhance the benefits of your prescription

- Balanced and Healthy diet

- Regular exercise that is safe to perform

- Selective Oestrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMS) is a medication that replicates the functions of oestrogen to provide what the body is lacking of which is oestrogen. This is specifically for women who are going through the postmenopausal phase.


Complicated & Related Diseases

- Bone fractures, more so in the wrists, hip, pelvis and back.

- Bone fractures that causes impairment and lack the ability to be independent


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