Diabetes

High glucose levels (hyperglycaemia) in the bloodstream causes Diabetes. An individual who has this chronic condition does not have the normal ability for the body to produce enough insulin or when it shows not responsive to the produced insulin. The insulin hormone helps to regulate glucose and changes it into energy or stores it in the body. This can lead to a higher risk of getting cardiovascular (heart-related) diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels and obesity. There are three common types of Diabetes: - Type 1 Diabetes is an insulin-dependent Diabetes, occurs when no insulin is produced. - Type 2 Diabetes is non-insulin dependent when it shows ineffective to insulin - Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) develops in 2-5 % pregnant women who do not suffer from Diabetes previously. It often relates with Type 2 Diabetes

Causes

Type 1 Diabetes is affected by dysfunctional or destroyed pancreatic cells and unable to produce insulin that leads to no insulin. This happens more commonly during childhood period, and needs insulin injections daily to carry out normal routine and increase chances of survival.

Type 2 Diabetes is affected by insulin resistance when it's unable to be produced by the body, there is low levels of insulin. Eventually, this form of diabetes will develop and symptoms are visible after the age of 40. Some common high risk factors include poor healthy diets, habits,overweight issues, and family history.

Gestational Diabetes happens in 2-5% of pregnant women who don't have a history of diabetes. This occurs after giving birth and involves a high risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes later on in life.


Symptoms

Common signs and symptoms of Diabetes includes:

- Blurry vision - Constant hunger

- Extreme thirst, even after consuming plenty of fluids

- Feeling fatigue or weak often

- Frequent urination day and night

- Irritated and itchy skin surrounding the genitals

- Numb hands and feet

- Reduced healing of cuts and wouds

- Weight loss despite normal appetite


Treatment

Type 1 Diabetes treatment involves:

- Monitoring blood sugar levels daily

- Insulin injections several times a day or using the insulin pump

Type 2 Diabetes treatment more frequently requires changes in lifestyle which includes:

- Eating a healthy balanced diet to avoid eating food that is high in fats and cholesterol, increase the intake of fruits and vegetables

- To avoid consuming sugary foods in excess

- To exercise regularly

- Maintain a healthy weight

- Oral medications might be prescribed by your doctor during the later stages of the disease to maintain blood glucose level



Complications and Related Diseases

- Bacterial and fungal skin infections, including gum infections.

- Numbness in the feet, blisters, and gangrene that might require amputation if condition is chronic.

- Diseases relating to the heart and blood vessels such as coronary heart disease and heart attack.

- Kidney disease can develop and might require dialysis and kidney transplant.

- Nerve disease such as numbness and pain in legs, toes and fingers, that can lead to a complete loss of sense in the limbs that affected

- Osteoporosis (thinning and weakening of bones)

- Severe vision impairment that causes cataracts, glaucoma, and gradually blindness


If you have any question, do send us an enquiry

Make an enquiry
EMERGENCY CONTACT
Gleneagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu
Ambulance / Emergency
+6088 518 911