Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Prostate Enlargement)

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is a non-cancerous prostate gland enlargement. This disorder is more commonly seen in men that are over the ages of 50. Essentially, this enlargement occurs when there is an obstruction in the passageway when the urine excretes out from the bladder and it requires more pressure for urine to exit through.

This eventually causes the bladder to lack control and loses its function to fully be emptied. The signs and symptoms of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia are related to the closing of the urethra and the bladder unable to get rid of the urine fully.


Causes

There is still no clear cause of BPH. This can develop over time because of a male hormone build up of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), where it is included in the growing process of the prostate. The reason for high levels of DHT is not recorded. There is a theory that old age comes with hormonal imbalance that could be the cause factor for this disorder.

Alternative hormonal changes can involves low levels of oestrogen (female hormone) and there is an imbalance in other growth factors that manages cell division and cell death.


Symptoms

There are more common signs and symptoms of BPH, this may include:

- Blood in the urine

- Greater pressure and straining is needed to begin urinating

- Hesitant and interrupted urination

- Sensation that the bladder is not completely emptied after urination

- Sudden inability to urinate (chronic retention of urine)

- Sudden urgent need to urinate

- Urinating more frequently, specifically at night - Urine leakage


Treatment

There are certain treatment options that are offered for BPH. Your doctor will provide a detailed assessment to give the best treatment that is suitable for you depending on the severity of your condition. These treatment care might include:

- Drugs to aid in relaxing the prostate to minimize the obstruction of the bladder opening

- Drugs to relax the prostate to minimize the obstruction of the bladder opening

- Drugs to help stop the production of the male hormone (DHT) that is involved in prostate enlargement.

- Laser vaporisation for individuals with smaller prostate gland so it can get rid of the enlarged prostate tissues.

- Surgical treatment to get rid of the enlarged sections of the prostate that are putting pressure against the urethra.

- Open surgery is performed when the prostate is too large

- Transurethral incision of the prostate

- Transurethral resection of the prostate

- Watchful waiting if your symptoms are mild


Complications & Related Diseases

- Bladder and urethra damage

- Bladder stones

- Kidney damage

- Kidney infections

- Urinary incontinence


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